Smart Nutrition Starts with You
Nutrition can have a big impact on your overall health. Smart nutrition is about making food choices that produce a positive, rather than negative, impact. In fact, making smart food choices can help you maintain a healthy weight, lower your risk for a number of diseases, and even strengthen your immune system.
Nutritionally Dense Food vs. Empty Calories
Eating nutritionally dense food is the best way to get the most out of your calories. These foods are relatively low in calories, but high in nutrition, so they can help you maintain a healthy weight while giving you a good dose of vitamins, minerals, protein, and fiber. At the same time, you’ll want to cut down your intake of foods with “empty calories”—those that have high calorie counts with little nutritional benefit. These foods often get their extra calories from fats and refined sugars. That’s why a piece of fruit in the morning will do you more good than a sugary pastry.
Fruits and vegetables
Fruits and vegetables are a natural choice for nutritionally dense foods, so you can be generous in serving up these highly nourishing treats. In fact, according to ChooseMyPlate.gov, fruits and vegetables should make up half of your plate at any given meal—about 30 percent vegetables and 20 percent fruit. You can choose a diverse selection of colors to add variety in both flavor and nutrition.
How many servings of fruits and vegetables do you need each day? This depends on your age, sex, and levels of physical activity. Visit the Fruits and Veggies: More Matters page to learn more and get a personalized recommendation about your daily fruit and vegetable quota.
Whole grain foods
Grains should also account for a sizable portion of your plate—about 30 percent. The USDA recommends that whole grains make up at least half of those grains. Whole grains not only can give you more fiber, but they usually contain more nutrients.
Lean sources of protein
Lean protein is important to a smart diet—about 20 percent of your plate. There are many good sources of lean protein, including:
- Lean meats (chicken, turkey, beef, pork, etc.)
- Seafood (fish, shellfish, etc.)
- Soy products (tofu, veggie burgers, soy beverages, etc.)
- Beans and peas
Dairy and other calcium-rich foods
Dairy products can be a good source of protein and calcium, but low-fat and no-fat dairy products are the most nutritionally dense. Other calcium-fortified food sources include cereals, breads, and some juices, as well as soy, rice, and nut beverages. Dark leafy vegetables, like turnip greens, kale, Chinese cabbage, and mustard greens, are additional sources of calcium.
Drinking plenty of water is part of good nutrition, but foods like raw fruit and vegetables can also help keep you hydrated. It’s important to realize that your body can have trouble distinguishing hunger from thirst pangs, so being well hydrated can often keep you from eating too much. By the same token, be aware that there may be times when you think your body is saying “I’m hungry,” but it could actually be trying to tell you that it needs more water.
Be Aware, Reduce, and Avoid
While some foods clearly get the “green light” nutritionally, others deserve a yellow or even a red light. Fats, oils, sugars, and other high-calorie/low nutrition foods, should be approached with caution. Sodium should also be on your list of “yellow light” foods, and in some cases deserves a red light.
Be aware of your sodium intake. When choosing meats and poultry, keep in mind the average person should reduce daily sodium intake to 2,300 milligrams (mg) or less. For people sensitive to the affects of sodium or who are at risk of experiencing certain medical conditions like high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease, daily sodium intake should be1,500 mg or less.
To minimize your salt intake:
- Processed foods can be high in sodium, so read labels.
- Keep track of your daily sodium intake.
- Try flavoring foods with herbs, spices, and other seasonings instead of salt.
- Remember meals from restaurants can be high in sodium. Check the nutritional and sodium content of their food, either on their menus or online.
Fats, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol
Be aware of your saturated fat consumption. Less than 10 percent of your calories should come from saturated fat. To lower your saturated fat consumption:
- Avoid trans fatty acids (sometimes called trans fats). Trans fatty acids come from the hydrogenation process that turns liquid oils into solids (like shortening and margarine) and are often found in processed and fast foods.
- Check the nutritional label of margarines, shortenings, fried foods, crackers, cookies and other baked goods to see if they contain fatty acids.
- Replace saturated fat, cholesterol, and trans fatty acids with unsaturated fats when possible.
- Look for non-hydrogenated monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (from vegetable sources, for example, try olive, soybean, corn, and sunflower oils) while avoiding coconut and palm kernel oils.
Decreasing your daily intake of added sugars will lower calories without compromising nutrient intake. Some easy ways to avoid added sugars:
- Limit major sources such as sugar-sweetened candies, desserts, and beverages (e.g., regular soda, sports drinks, and energy drinks).
- Drink water or unsweetened tea or coffee, instead of drinks with sugar added.
Alcohol gives you high calories with minimal nutrition, so if you're watching your calories and you want every calorie to count, avoid the empty calories in alcohol.
Keeping an eye on the calories you consume vs. those you burn through activity is a daily balancing act. Find out the right amount of calorie intake for your body and set goals for yourself. And remember that lower levels of physical activity on any given day mean you’ll need to consume fewer calories.
When is the last time someone told you “Good for you!”? You can say it to yourself—and mean it—once you start using some of these tips for smart nutrition.